Familial Status Discrimination – Part II: Tenancy

Author: Trina M. Clayton

It is important to understand that familial status discrimination may occur at any stage of property rental.  Our earlier blog described some of the pitfalls a landlord might run into during the pre-tenancy period.  Here, we will explore potential areas of concern during tenancy.

Examples of Familial Status Discrimination

  • Refusing to rent to families with children.
  • Charging a higher security deposit to families with children even if the family has a good rental history.
  • Increasing rent (called a “rent surcharge”) because a resident brings a child into the household.
  • Steering families with children to downstairs units, certain sections of a building, or to certain buildings or areas in a development (such as near the playground).
  • Restrictions on children’s outdoor recreation activities or use of common areas.  This could include an “adults only” pool policy or pool hours; curfew rules that target children, or general premises rules regarding adult supervision of children.
    • Examples of rules which violate the Fair Housing Act include, “children on the premises are to be supervised by a responsible adult at all times” and “persons under the age of 18 must abide by the set curfew of 10:00 P.M.”
  • No playing rules such as, “Under no circumstances may children play on stairwells, walkways, or carports. Under no circumstances may children[s’] toys or vehicles be used in the above areas or in pool area.”

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Familial Status Discrimination – Part I: Pre-Tenancy

Author: Trina M. Clayton

Federal and California fair housing laws, most notably the Fair Housing Act (42 U.S.C. 3601, et seq.) and the Fair Employment and Housing Act (Cal. Gov. Code §§ 12900, et seq.), prohibit discrimination in housing rental or conditions based on specific protected classes, such as race, sex, religion, disability, and (the subject of this blog post) familial status.

Familial status refers to any household with children under the age of 18.  It applies whether the minor is a biological child, adopted, a foster child, or legally under the custody or guardianship of an adult tenant.  It applies to both traditional and non-traditional families.  It also applies to pregnant women, as well as families that are in the process of securing legal custody of children through adoption, foster care, or divorce.  It is illegal to discriminate against a prospective or current tenant because there is a child, or will be a child, in the home.

It is important to understand that familial status discrimination may occur at any stage of property rental.  This blog will explore some of the pitfalls a landlord might run into, during the pre-tenancy period.

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Do I have to Pay a Job Applicant for “Try Out” Time?

Author: Trina M. Clayton

When hiring a new employee, many employers find it valuable to observe a candidate perform essential job skills, to help them select the right applicant.  An employer may ask a candidate to demonstrate how they would actually perform the job – for instance – having a delivery driver lift heavy boxes, having a cook demonstrate food preparation skills, or having an office worker perform a typing test.  Employers should be mindful, however, that depending on what the applicant is asked to do during an interview, and how much time it takes, they may need to pay the applicant for this “try-out” time.

Primary Considerations

According to the California Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (DLSE), there are three principal factors to consider when determining whether “try-out” time needs to be paid.

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The Opening Day TRO

 

Author: Michael S. Dorsi

Extraordinary times call for extraordinary measures. And California civil procedure has an answer to the need for immediate orders from a court: you can, on one day, file your case, make your first motion, obtain a temporary restraining order, and have the court set a date when the defendant is ordered to show cause  why a Temporary Restraining Order should not be granted.

What is the trick to winning such a big, early victory for a client?

First, the relief must fit the facts. That the defendant owes a lot of money is typically not going to be enough for an early court order. A court can order the defendant to pay later. The Opening Day TRO requires something more than just monetary damages.

Second, you, the attorney, should get to know the courtroom. Different counties have different procedures. Marin County assigns cases to a single judge, so that same judge hears your ex parte application, your noticed motions, your case management issues, and your trial. San Francisco assigns several judges to civil trials full-time, while two different courtrooms handle motions (Department 501 for cases dealing with real property and housing, Department 302 for everything else). And while some judges take the bench, others send out a clerk to talk to the parties and report back with the papers. Having experience in the specific courtroom is best, but if you don’t have that, at least show up and watch ex parte applications in the appropriate courtroom.

Third, cross your t’s and dot your i’s. The easiest way for a court to deny an ex parte application is for failure to follow procedure. Sometimes that means delivering a courtesy copy of your papers even before you file them at the clerk’s office. Don’t worry if it seems strange, you will be more successful if you just do what the court wants.

 

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